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The Retreat of the Elephants An Environmental History of ChinaRetreat of the Elephants was kind of an odd book Mark Elvin Jingle-Bell Baby provides a massive review of thousands of years of Chinese environmental history and was apparently the first westerner to attempt this task Most of the general takeaways of the book are covered in the first several chapters which are about a third of the overall length The rest of the book chiefly deals with seemingly cherryicked in depth examples that are supposed to exemplify some aspect of Chinese attitudes towards and interactions with their natural environment at various Two-Part Harmony points in the country s long history These middle and later chapters deal with things such as the history of three specific localities a massive water managementroject and explications of works by certain oets and hilosophers Elvin translated a huge amount of archaic and historical writings into English and he rightfully considers Feeling Pleasures providing thisrimary source material to an English speaking audience to be one of the most significant contributions of this Leaf by Niggle project Unfortunately he also chose to include vastassages of these documents in his main text rather than appendices or end notes and these translations account for a large King Maker (Knights of Breton Court portion of the length of this 500age book even though most of them only contain a line or two that directly support the The White Horse of Zennor point he is using them to illustrate There is a lot of interesting information in here for sure but also much less synthesis than I was expecting and a lot of the useful nuggets are buried inage after Growing With Mathematics page ofoems and not always well contextualized mystical texts that make getting through this book an unnecessarily tedious chore Elvin also seemed to at times be a bit too credulous of some of the things in these writings for his own good Probably the most egregious comes in Chapter 3 when he uncritically Tempting a Texan (The Texas Series, passes along the report of a ing Dynasty writer thateacocks Organizational Behavior and Virtual Work poison the environment by becoming so abundant in undisturbed forest that they fouled miles of rivers with their droppings and that somehow this is an example of extensive forest cover being bad for the environment Needless to say I think most modern ecologists would be as skeptical of this anecdote as I amersonally I suspect the writer had observed something like a red tide event and in grappling for an explanation linked them to his unrelated observation that these conspicuous birds were common in the area Again there is also some really interesting stuff in the book especially the early chapters descriptions of the alteration of historical ecological communities by the ancient expansion of intensive agriculture out of the ethnic Han heartland including the titular retreat of the elephants and the later discussion of the long term costs of technological lock in of large scale water management systems However I think most of the really useful synthesis he Conflict and Reconciliation presentsrobably could have been covered in a much shorter book or a couple monographs This is no doubt an important work in the specific field of Chinese environmental history but it really is geared towards a technical specialist doing research work in this area rather than ecologists natural historians or general readers I have to admit defeat on this it s academic than I was looking for and it addresses the modern era less than I d hoped I suspect the writing is denser than it needs to be but since I might not be the target audience I it needs to be but since I might not be the target audience I t leave a negative rating To build a Light As A Feather, Cold As A Marble (Weeping Willow portrait of environmental history on a canvas spanning 4000 years in a large country with an extraordinary geographic and demographicrofile like China is no easy task Somehow Mark Elvin in this book manages to The Life And Times Of Rosie The Riveter pull it off with engaging stories and compelling analysis of the historical record There have been many reviews of this book already by historians and they have made a better assessment than I can in all honesty make here But let me share straight off as an ecologist who is no historian some of the things I liked about this book and some of what I learnt The first aspect that I liked which finds little mention in other reviews is the author s extensive use of Chinese literature especiallyeriod Sex Powers University 2 poetryresented in translation often at length to build his narrative and arguments Some of the Deadly Seduction poetry is telling in detail Poets who recount thelight of farmers in an era of agricultural and demographic expansion the harsh conditions of coal miners the scarcity of fuelwood and food They write of floods and famine of forests and rain of nature as resource and as a force Not floods and famine of forests and rain of nature as resource and as a force Not do these evoke descriptions of the Randy Comfort Rise Again period they also bring insights intoeople s Meet The Vampire perceptions of the environment This isarticularly used by the author in the latter ყინულის სასახლე parts of the bookA second aspect which was interesting is the comparison of the history of landscapes andeoples in three different regions in China The author makes a convincing case for the strong influences that landscapes cast on history and conversely on how the historical changes in Iktomi and the Berries people land use and resource exploitation cast their sometimes indelible mark on the landscapesFinally it is good to see the comprehensive sweep of the analysis of Chinese environmental history especially in the opening chapters The retreat of the elephants mentioned in the title is used as a defining marker of the decline in forests and wildlife with the expansion of farming andre industrial development in China Deforestation is linked to erosion and rising river basins and conseuently to catastrophic floods In addition the response in terms of hydraulic measures of dykes and dams and canals is clearly Better Policing with Microsoft Office 2007 pinned down for the additional implications that these engineering measures have costly and constant repair and maintenance The importance of environmental buffers runs as a thread through the historical narrativeThe flip side of the book is its length the varying structure of narrative and the lack of illustrative maps additionallyroblematic while reading on the Kindle edition It would have also helped if the author had Escaflowne (Escaflowne Newtype 100% Collection, 40) presented a summary of key conclusions and concepts at the end of each section of the book The concluding remarks does a good job of setting out an analytical context. A landmark account of China’s environmental history by an internationallyre eminent China specialist This is the first environmental history of China during the three thousand years for which there are written records It is also a treasure trove of literary Wild Pork and Watercress political aesthetic scientific and religious sources which allow the reader direct access to the views and feelings of the Chineseeople toward their environment and their lan. ,


And mentioning some broad conclusions while highlighting the further work comparisons and empirical research that is reuired in future Isabel Hilton editor of the website China Dialogue has chosen to discuss T he Retreat of the Elephants by Mark Elvin on FiveBooks as one of the top five on her subject China s Environmental Crisis saying that The most comprehensive and scholarly history of the Han eople s relationship to their environmentThe environmental history of China is a very interesting one and there is this mythology that Chinese Interracial Romance BWWM peasants are somehow in tune with nature But if you read Elvin you realise that in China there has actually been 2000 years of unsustainable development and environmental degradation The full interview is available here Enormous disjointed and a dense read The Retreat of the Elephants is nonetheless an extraordinary work of scholarship even if its final form is not easily digested Mark Elvin looks at four thousand years of Chinese history to show the gap between the Chineseeople s love of nature and the simultaneous destruction of the environment for the sake of commerce and Gaddafis Harem politicalower By the 1800s China had undertaken environmentally intensive Puff projects than the West China s environmental degradation was also becoming severe by theresent day that degradation has become catastrophic and unsustainable The book wanders over much ground covering religion Laid to Ruin (Lancelots Fall, poetry hydraulics and watershed management imperialolitics superstition legends comparative studies of different Leyendas Negras provinces warfare the use of nature in war longevity and food In many ways this book reads like the summary of aathbreaking conference it lays out the The Iron Palace (Shadowed Path, parameters of a field and gives other historians topics to write about However I do disagree with Elvin s contention that environmental history only applies to theeriod for which we have written sources about the environment I and uite a few biologists geologists would contend that we can use natural evidence to tell us about the Earth s history and mankind s relationship with nature before writing was invented Elephants in China Yes and Forests TooEvery once in a while you come across a book so original and thought Bad, Bad Bluebloods (Rich Boys of Burberry Prep provoking that you make you gasp in admiration The Retreat of the Elephants An Environmental History of China by Mark Elvin is such a book It turned up when I was doing a search about the difficult relation between humans and forests over history asart of the research for my next non fiction In the Cavern of the Night project Road through Time A little time trolling library catalogues and data bases and I came up with a fascinating reading list that I m currently working my through Another good one is Deforesting the Earth From Prehistory to Global Crisis An Abridgement by Michael Williams whose title has got to be an inside joke since it has 561agesElvin is from New Zealand and the bad boys of butte perhaps that South Pacific vantageoint has allowed him to write a history of the rise of intensive agriculture in China and the accompanying destruction of forests water courses and grasslands He takes as his starting image the herds of elephants which five thousand years ago roamed woods around Beijing apparently there are many caches of the beasts bones in that Romancing the Customer part of China The huge herbivores were hunted by the elite but that was not what did them in Rather they were the type ofachyderms which could not survive outside forests and as the Chinese vigorously deforested the land they retreated until now there are only a few left on the border with MyanmarWhat happened next Elvin recounts with the same striking storyteller s skills What is he uotes extensively from Chinese The Articles of Release (The Release poetry to bring the rest of his history to life While it appears that he greatly regrets what the Chinese have done to their land over the last five thousand years he also shows much sympathy for the reasons that lie behind their desire to make every inchroductiveI m no Asian scholar so I can not critiue either his sources or his analysis but the 50 ages or so of notes and bibliography at the end of the book attest to Elvin s seriousness and his academic credentialsIf you are interested in China the environment or Chinese literature this book is a must read Picked up in a bookshop near the campus of the University of Chicago on a blustery fall day wanted to buy couldn t afford to buy That was nearly 15 years ago and now I finally have the chance to read itThe first time you see China you look down at the landscape and come to the conclusion that this is a lace eaten at by time at and come to the conclusion that this is a Idle Ideas in 1905 place eaten at by time at I did If you look at the Wikipediaage showing the worst disasters of all time sorted by type you ll notice half of them occurred in China and you Haunted Marion, Ohio probably haven t heard of most of them Maybe not any of themAnd Retreat of the Elephants is a hell of a guide to the cavalcade of cruelties that forms Chinese history the struggles against the environment and the many instances in which the environmentushed back Elvin based his analyses on classical Thief of Lies (Library Jumpers, poetry and he that this isn t an ideal tactic but it srobably the best available to modern scholars So take that grain of salt fellow empiricists but it s enjoyable all the same A great if dry in Oracle APEX 18.1 For Beginners: A platform to rapidly develop data-centric web applications accessible from a multitude of devices points environmental approach to the broad sweep of Chinese history countering the common assumption that traditional Chinesehilosophy Daoism etc leads to a way of life somehow in harmony with nature than the dominant Protectors of the Stars (Theias Moons, philosophies and religions of the West I finished reading this just as Darren Aronofsky s Noah opened in theaters uite appropriate given the book s focus on hydrological disastersIf you don t mind a spoiler can there be spoilers for history books Mark Elvin arrives at a somewhatessimistic conclusion casting doubt on the hope that we can escape from our The Total Fishing Manual (Field Stream) present environmental difficulties by means of a transformation of consciousnessUsing the vast expanse of Chinese history as a source of examples he finds that theursuit of Toyota Tacoma: 2005 thru 2015 All 2WD and 4WD models (Haynes Repair Manual) profit and military a Elephants and rhinoceroses once roamed thelains of what is now Beijing The Yellow River was not always yellow And the modern Chinese landscape was not always the barren treeless expanse that Dscape Elvin chronicles the spread of the Chinese style of farming that eliminated the habitat of the elephants that opulated the country alongside much of its original wildlife; the destruction of most of the forests; the impact of war on the environmental transformation of the landscape; and the re engineering of the countryside through water control systems some of gigantic size He documents the histories of three contrasting loca. Uch of it is today Accounting for how these things came to be is the aim of Elvin s The Last Ride of German Freddie pioneering synthesis It is a story that builds in the costs ofrogress not from a late moment in the history of industrialization but from the very beginning of one of our oldest civilizations and by implication all civilizationSimilar stories of human society expanding at the expense of megafauna such as elephants rhinos and tigers and environmental degradation could be told for virtually any area or 16 v ja haku päällä period of organized human activity What makes Elvin s study interesting is its treatment of so great a span of history within one region and the relative richness of resources available to us for its investigation What makes hiserspective urgent is the widespread contemporary sense that we are entering upon an era of heightened environmental unpredictability in which the dynamic interaction between human and natural systems is shifting radically As it was 4000 years ago China is at the center of this story today though readers should not take up this book expecting a review of China s current environmental challenges Elvin s aim is broader than any The Malbim Esther possible catalog or indictment of contemporary ecological woes In fact the Chinese exposure to environmental catastrophe was much greater only several hundred years ago when floods of epicroportions and famines affecting millions of Moonchild people followed closely one upon the other What Elvin narrates is the struggle to bring stability to naturally fluctuating environments especially its great rivers wetlands and estuaries and the trade offs that inescapably accompanied them Ourresent Constructing Effective Criticism predicament asressing as it is is the latest episode in a very long dramaThere is no better example of this than the efforts at hydrological engineering that in some sense made Chinese civilization The Last Algonquin possible to begin with and have been seen by some as leaving an indelible imprint on it in the form of hydrological despotism So great has been the need to control water for the sake of agriculture the argument goes and so extensive has been the mobilization of resources reuired to do so that an authoritarian and highly bureacratized Chinese state has been almost a geographical necessity from the beginning Elvin doesn t go this far but in telling his tale through an impressive moving and often delightful assemblage of historical sources he makes clear the Faustian bargains that were made to establish the earliest lineaments of the state and society in China The implications carry far beyond the twin valleys of the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers Urban agricultural settlement in China was a response to theractical needs of continual warfare The needs of warfare drove an agricultural expansion that targeted the temperate forests of East Asia and the species it supported The archaic states of China were conscious of their antagonism to elements of the natural world Elvin cites several Hall of Mirrors pangyrics to the Shang and Zhou Dynasties that euate the destruction of forests with the consolidation ofower the establishment of cities and the spread of civilization Elvin highlights this sentiment as it reappears in various texts in later centuriesThe wealth generated by this new form of human settlement enabled sophisticated states to arise which in turn acuired the capacity to implement enormous irrigation works to better serve their agricultural needs Human Electric Machines and Power Systems population swells and the buffers of ecologicalrotection mainly forests inland and marshland along the coasts from extreme events become dangerously thin as a result The idea of extreme events caused by anthropomorphic activity thus long recedes carbon induced climate change The leading example of this feedback loop which is the leitmotif of the book is deforestation It was clearance of forests along the middle reaches of the Yellow River in the ancient in Dynasty that led to the erosion of loess soils from cultivated fields which gave the River its Yellow character Agriculture sent soil down the rivers
soil which settled 
which settled farmland elsewhere at the rice of freuent flooding From this The Fundamental 5 point on as Elvin documents the increasing rate of floods and dike failures along the Yellow River corresponded to deforestation all along the river s course and ever greater efforts to control itsower Elvin argues that the efforts to control the Yellow River especially under the river tamer Pan Jixun in the 1570s and the centuries long battle against the East China sea in the Bay of Hangzhou represent respectively the greatest single human impact and The Gate — Things my Mother told me. program for action upon the environment inremodern times anywhere in the world Debunked in conseuence is the notion that only the West sought to comprehensively control nature The book suffers from a few flaws chief among them the absence of maps which is galling in a book that Vanity Loves Company pays such close attention to geography It is long and inlaces burdened with taxonomic cataloging of flora and fauna Some readers may feel that Elvin dumps long excerpts of historical text whole cloth into the narrative when a shorter gloss would do just as well For my Wastin Away part I appreciated Elvin s method of textual citation It accounts for one of the book s greatest successesroviding the reader an opportunity to envision and almost in some The Team Handbook places to hear and smell now vanished worlds of the senses We see how Elvin extracts theicture of a landscape its and technological landmarks and color and flora and fauna from a grab bag of classical Worldviews of Aspiring Powers poems The same as true if not so of the human experience of all of these what it is like to be stalked by a tiger or aython how one might Adorkable possibly have sold off one s wife or children in time of famine or gnawed on the bark of an elm tree out of hunger a worldopulated by dragons and goblins and non Han Discover the Seasons peoples who viewed their wooded environments charitably than their Han neighbors Elvin does not romanticize the efforts of millions over the centuries to survive in the face of countless threats But he does at eachoint at which the evidence allows account for the trade offs and costs for each gain in security and for the epic loss resulting from the trade of ecological richness for human riche. Lities within China to show how ecological dynamics defined the lives of the inhabitants And he shows that China in the eighteenth century on the eve of the modern era was Science in Ancient Egypt probably environmentally degraded than northwestern Europe around this time Indispensable for its newerspective on long term Chinese history and its explanation of the roots of China’s How To Take Care of Your Human Pet present day environmental crisis this book opens a door into the Chineseast.